Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge, established in 1936, lies within the Mississippi River flyway. This 6,226 acre refuge contains rolling prairies, rich wetlands and bottomland forests which support a variety of wildlife species. It is an isolated backwater, providing needed resting and feeding areas for waterfowl and other birds. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is the principal federal agency responsible for conserving, protecting and enhancing fish, wildlife and plants and their habitats for the continuing benefit for American people. Several plant species from the refuge have been identified as being particularly useful for making phenological observations.
The Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge lies along the Mississippi River flyway and provides excellent habitat for waterfowl, songbirds, beaver, muskrat, white-tailed deer and more. It is also valuable in that it contains sand prairie, backwater marsh, and hardwood forest habitats. As plant and animal ranges shift with changing climates, managers may need to alter how they manage Refuge resources in the future.