Plant Groups

Budburst divides its plant species into five groups: deciduous trees and shrubs, conifers, broadleaf evergreens, grasses, and wildflowers and herbs. Note that the Budburst plant groups are determined by the similarity of plant phenology, not necessarily by botanical family. For each Budburst plant group you will find a definition, along with phenophase descriptions.

Use the Plant List to search for a specific plant. Budburst maintains a list of over 400 plant species. If you are unable to find the plant using either its common or scientific name, you can still submit data on your plant to the Budburst database. Your plant may exist in the database because someone else reported on it previously.

All observations help us better understand how plants are responding to changes in their environments.

Printable Report Forms: Printable phenology report forms are provided for your convenience where online reporting may not be feasible:

Wildflowers and Herbs

A wildflower is a flower that grows 'on its own' without needing cultivation. Some wildflowers are native species, that is, they are indigenous to an area or region. Other wildflowers have been introduced to an area but are able to thrive on their own. Some species of wildflowers are very common while others are quite rare.

For the purposes of Budburst observations, this category includes forbs, plants that die back to the ground over the winter months and re-emerge in the spring, as well as cacti. Examples include the following: Black-eyed Susan, Large flowered trillium, Wild bergamotButterfly milkweed, and Plains pricklypear.

Phenology Events

Life events for this group of plants revolve around leafing, flowering and fruiting. All plants are unique and the first ripe fruit phenophase for the large flowered trillium differs from the first ripe fruit for the common milkweed.

No Flowers

No flowers or buds visible

First Bud Emerged

First flower bud is visible.

Flower Bud Burst

Flower sepals, also called bud scales, have opened to reveal the emerging flower. The color of the flower can be recognized. 

First Flower

First flower is fully open. When open, you will see the stamens/pistils among the unfolded petals.

Early Flowering

Few flowers are open (less than 5%). 

Middle Flowering

Half or more of the flowers are completely open.

Late Flowering

Most flowers have wilted or fallen off (over 95%).

All Flowers Withered

All flowers have wilted or fallen off. 

No Ripe Fruit

No ripe fruits or seeds are visible. There is no fruit, or fruit is not yet ripe

First Ripe Fruit

First fruits are fully ripe or a few seeds are dropping naturally from the plant. Ripening is usually indicated by a change in color to the mature color, or by drying and splitting open (for dry fruits such as capsules).

Early Fruiting

Only a few ripe fruits or seeds are visible (less than 5%). 

Middle Fruiting

Half or more of the fruits are completely ripe or seeds are dropping naturally from the plant.

Late Fruiting

Most fruits or seeds have been dispersed from the plant (over 95%).

First Shoot

First appearance of the growing shoot is visible above ground. 

First Leaf Emerged

First leaf has emerged. The leaf shape should be clearly visible, but it can still be partly folded. 

First Leaf Unfolded

First leaf has unfolded and is at least 75% of its mature size. 

All Leaves Unfolded

All emerged leaves are fully visible in their mature form. 

First Leaf Withered

First leaf, of those that developed this season, has lost its green color or is dried and dead. 

All Leaves Withered

Most or all of the leaves that developed this season have lost their green color or are dried and dead.

Deciduous Trees and Shrubs

Deciduous trees and shrubs are woody plants that shed their leaves at the end of the growing season, usually in the winter. However, leaf drop can also occur during a dry season in warm climates. Examples include red maple, chokecherry, and common lilac.

At Budburst, we group deciduous trees and deciduous shrubs together. However, there are significant differences. Deciduous trees are generally defined as woody, self-supporting perennial plants that have a single main stem (trunk) and grow to more than 20 feet tall. Deciduous shrubs—while also woody, perennial plants—are smaller than trees (less than 20 feet) and usually have several stems.

Although these trees and shrubs differ in appearance, they share similar life events (phenology). This is why Budburst places them in the same group.

Phenology Events

Life events for this group or plants revolve around leafing, flowering, fruiting, leaf color change, and leaf drop. Plants are unique, and the same phenophase on red maple will look a little different than on a sugar maple.

However, closely observing the red maple in your backyard, for example, gives you the opportunity to identify the date it reaches each of these events. Please report your phenology observations using your Budburst account.

No Flowers

No flowers or pollen visible.

Flower Bud Burst

Flower sepals, the protective bud scales, have shed from the bud, exposing tender new growth tissues of one or more flower buds.

First Flower

First flowers are fully open (stamens/pistils are visible) on at least three branches. When open, flowers on wind-pollinated trees and shrubs will release yellow dust-like pollen when touched.

Early Flowering

Only a few flowers have emerged (less than 5%) or pollen is just starting to disperse.

Middle Flowering

Half or more of the flowers are fully open or releasing pollen on three or more branches.

Late Flowering

Most flowers have wilted or fallen off (over 95%) or most pollen has fallen.

No Ripe Fruit

No ripe fruits or seeds visible.

First Ripe Fruit

First fruits become fully ripe or seeds drop naturally from the plant on three or more branches. Ripening is often indicated by a change to the mature color or by drying and splitting open.

Tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) Photo courtesy of Steve Baskauf, Vanderbilt University.
Tulip poplar
Liriodendron tulipifera
American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) Photo courtesy of Will Cook, carolinanature.com.
American beautyberry
Callicarpa americana
American linden (Tilia americana) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
American linden
Tilia americana
Beaked hazelnut (Corylus cornuta) Photo courtesy of Jorg and Mimi Fleige, Westernwildflower.com.
Beaked hazelnut
Corylus cornuta
Common lilac (Syringa vulgaris) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Common lilac
Syringa vulgaris
Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) Photo courtesy of Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation.
Chokecherry
Prunus virginiana

Early Fruiting

Only a few ripe fruits or seeds are visible (less than 5%).

Middle Fruiting

Half or more branches have fully ripe fruit or the seeds are dropping naturally from the plant. If fruits are in clusters or stalks, then record when at least one fruit is ripe on at least half of the branches.

Black cherry (Prunus serotina) Photo courtesy of Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation.
Black cherry
Prunus serotina
Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Black locust
Robinia pseudoacacia
Southern arrowwood (Viburnum dentatum) Photo courtesy of Patuxent Research Refuge.
Southern arrowwood
Viburnum dentatum
Tag alder (Alnus serrulata) Photo courtesy of Will Cook, carolinanature.com.
Tag alder
Alnus serrulata
Western serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia) Photo courtesy of Joseph and Kathy Boland.
Western serviceberry
Amelanchier alnifolia

Late Fruiting

Most fruits or seeds have been dispersed from plant (over 95%).

No Leaves

No new leaves visible.

Leaf Bud Burst

Protective scale coating is shed from the bud, exposing tender new growth of one or more leaves.

First Leaf Unfolded

First leaves are completely unfolded from the bud on at least three branches. Leaves need to be opened completely (flat) and the leaf stem or base must be visible (you might need to bend the leaf backwards to see those).

Early Leaves Unfolding

Only a few leaves have unfolded from the buds (less than 5%).

Middle Leaves Unfolding

Half or more leaves have unfolded from the buds.

All Leaves Unfolded

All or most leaves are fully unfolded.

No Leaf Color Change

No leaves have changed color.

Early Leaf Color Change

Only a few leaves have changed color (less than 5%).

50 Percent Color

Half or more of the branches have leaves that have started to change color.

Beaked hazelnut (Corylus cornuta) Photo courtesy of Oregon State University Landscape Plants.
Beaked hazelnut
Corylus cornuta
Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) Photo courtesy of Aleksandar Radosavljevic, Chicago Botanic Garden.
Sweetgum
Liquidambar styraciflua
Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) Photo courtesy of Aleksandar Radosavljevic, Chicago Botanic Garden.
Northern red oak
Quercus rubra
Red osier-dogwood (Cornus sericea) Photo courtesy of Aleksandar Radosavljevic, Chicago Botanic Garden.
Red osier-dogwood
Cornus sericea
Eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis) Photo courtesy of Aleksandar Radosavljevic, Chicago Botanic Garden.
Eastern redbud
Cercis canadensis

All Leaves Changed Color

All or most leaves have changed color.

No Leaves Dropped

No leaves have dropped.

Early Leaf Drop

Only a few leaves have dropped (less than 5%).

50 Percent Leaf Drop

Half or more of the leaves have fallen off the tree or shrub.

Tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) Photo courtesy of Aleksandar Radosavljevic, Chicago Botanic Garden.
Tulip poplar
Liriodendron tulipifera
Plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides) Photo courtesy of Aleksandar Radosavljevic, Chicago Botanic Garden.
Plains cottonwood
Populus deltoides
Paper birch (Betula papyrifera) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Paper birch
Betula papyrifera
Common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus) Photo courtesy of Aleksandar Radosavljevic, Chicago Botanic Garden.
Common snowberry
Symphoricarpos albus
Red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea) Photo courtesy of Aleksandar Radosavljevic, Chicago Botanic Garden.
Red-osier dogwood
Cornus sericea
Prunus-cerasus () Photo courtesy of Jean Bryan.
Sour cherry
Prunus-cerasus
 

All Leaves Dropped

All or most leaves have dropped.

Conifers

Conifers are woody trees and shrubs that produce cones rather than flowers. Examples of conifers include pines, spruces, and firs.

Most of these trees and shrubs have evergreen needles, although some have deciduous needles (for example larches, bald cypress, dawn redwoods). Conifers have male cones that produce pollen that is wind dispersed, and woody cones where seeds are borne. Because of these significant differences in flowering and fruiting phenophases, Budburst has created a conifer plant group separate from the other evergreens.

Phenology Events

Plants are unique, and the same phenophase on one plant might look a little different than the same phase on another plant. First ripe fruit (cone) for a Douglas fir looks different than it does for a western redcedar.

When following the same plant over time, you can identify a specific date for each phenophase. Report your observations using your Budburst account.

No Pollen

No pollen is falling.

First Pollen

Plant starts releasing the powdery yellow pollen from cones on three or more branches (from male cones which are usually small and rounded). When open, the male cones will release yellow pollen dust when touched.

Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) Photo courtesy of Patsey Chaney, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center.
Longleaf pine
Pinus palustris
Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Ponderosa pine
Pinus ponderosa
Pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) Photo courtesy of Susan McDougall, USDA-NRCS Plants Database
Pinyon pine
Pinus edulis
Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Douglas-fir
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) Photo courtesy of Ellen Denny , US-NPN.
Eastern white pine
Pinus strobus

Early Pollen

Some pollen is falling (less than 5%).

Middle Pollen

Half or more branches have pollen. When open, the male cones will release yellow pollen dust when touched.

Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Eastern white pine
Pinus strobus
Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Douglas-fir
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) Photo courtesy of Steve Baskauf, Vanderbilt University.
Loblolly pine
Pinus taeda
Ponderosa pine (Pinus taeda) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Ponderosa pine
Pinus taeda
Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Sitka spruce
Picea sitchensis

No Ripe Fruit

No ripe cones or seeds visible.

First Ripe Fruit (Cones)

First seed cones becoming fully ripe or seeds dropping naturally from the plant on three or more branches. Record when the seed cones turn brown and the scales expand (seeds should start dispersing shortly thereafter).

Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Douglas fir
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) Photo courtesy of Steve Baskauf, Vanderbilt University.
Loblolly pine
Pinus taeda
Pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) Photo courtesy of Al Schneider, USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database; Southwest Colorado Wildflowers.
Pinyon pine
Pinus edulis
Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Ponderosa pine
Pinus ponderosa

Early Fruiting (Cones)

Only a few branches have fully ripe cones or seeds dropping naturally from the tree (less than 5%).

Middle Fruiting (Cones)

Half or more branches have fully ripe cones or most of the seeds are dropping naturally from the tree.

Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Eastern red cedar
Juniperus virginiana
Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) Male cones, Photo courtesy of Dolly Cummings, Camp Bayou.
Sitka spruce
Picea sitchensis

Late Fruiting (Cones)

Most cones are open and seeds have been dispersed from plant (over 95%).

No Needles Emerging

No new needles are emerging.

First Needles

New needles emerge from tips of buds or are visible from the side of the buds on three or more branches.

Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Douglas-fir
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Eastern white pine
Pinus strobus
Pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) Photo by Paul Alaback
Pinyon pine
Pinus edulis
Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Ponderosa pine
Pinus ponderosa
Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Longleaf pine
Pinus palustris
Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Eastern redcedar
Juniperus virginiana

Early Needle Emergence

A few new needles have emerged (less than 5%).

Middle Needle Emergence

Many new needles have emerged

Broadleaf Evergreens

Broadleaf evergreens include both herbaceous and woody species that maintain green leaves year-round. Examples include magnolias, wax myrtle, holly, and live oaks. Each species of broadleaf evergreen tree or shrub is unique; first flower on a Southern magnolia might look a little different than the first flower on an Oregon grape.

Conifers, while also evergreens, have significant differences in flowering and fruiting phenophases and are, therefore, their own plant group in Budburst.

Phenology Events

Life events for this group of plants revolve around flowering and fruiting. All plants are unique and the first ripe fruit phenophase for one broadleaf evergreen may look different than that of another.  Report your observations using your Budburst account

No Flowers

No flowers visible.

First Flower

First flowers are fully open (stamens/pistils are visible) on at least three branches. When open, flowers on wind-pollinated plants will release yellow pollen dust when touched.

Barbary ragwort (Othonna cheirifolia) Photo courtesy of JC Raulston Arboretum at NC State University.
Barbary ragwort
Othonna cheirifolia
Curl-leaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Curl-leaf mountain mahogany
Cercocarpus ledifolius
Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) Photo courtesy of Angelyn Whitmeyer, Identifythatplant.com.
Mountain laurel
Kalmia latifolia
Naio (Myoporum sandwicense) Photo courtesy of M. LeGrande, University of Hawaii-Manoa.
Naio
Myoporum sandwicense
Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) Photo courtesy of Will Cook, carolinanature.com.
Southern magnolia
Magnolia grandiflora
Black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) Photo courtesy of US Fish and Wildlife Service.
Black mangrove
Avicennia germinans

Early Flowering

Only a few flowers have emerged (less than 5%).

Middle Flowering

Half or more of the flowers are fully open or releasing pollen on three or more branches.

'A'ali'i (Dodonaea viscosa) Photo courtesy of G.D. Carr.
'A'ali'i
Dodonaea viscosa
Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Big sagebrush
Artemisia tridentata
Black sage (Salvia mellifera) Photo courtesy of Brian Haggerty, UC-Santa Barbara.
Black sage
Salvia mellifera
Blackbead (Pithecellobium guadalupense) Photo courtesy of Tom Wilmers, Key Deer National Wildlife Refuge.
Blackbead
Pithecellobium guadalupense
Coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Coyote brush
Baccharis pilularis
Kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) Photo courtesy of John Hixon, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center.
Kinnikinnick
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Late Flowering

Most flowers have wilted or fallen off (over 95%).

No Ripe Fruit

No ripe fruits or seeds visible.

First Ripe Fruit

First fruits becoming fully ripe or seeds dropping naturally from the plant on three or more branches. Ripening is usually indicated by a change in color to the mature color, or by drying and splitting open (for dry fruits such as capsules).

‘Akia (Wikstroemia uva-ursi) Photo courtesy of Sarah Newman.
‘Akia
Wikstroemia uva-ursi
Blackbead (Pithecellobium guadalupense) Photo courtesy of Louise Venne.
Blackbead
Pithecellobium guadalupense
Coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Coyote brush
Baccharis pilularis
Kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) Photo courtesy of National Park Service.
Kinnikinnick
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) Photo courtesy of Steve Baskauf, Vanderbilt University.
Southern magnolia
Magnolia grandiflora
Yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) Photo courtesy of Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge.
Yaupon holly
Ilex vomitoria

Early Fruiting

Only a few ripe fruits or seeds are visible (less than 5%).

Middle Fruiting

Half or more of the fruits are completely ripe or seeds are dropping naturally from the plant.

'A'ali'i (Dodonaea viscosa) Photo courtesy of Sarah Newman.
'A'ali'i
Dodonaea viscosa
'Akia (Wikstroemia uva-ursi) Photo courtesy of Sarah Newman.
'Akia
Wikstroemia uva-ursi
Barberry ragwort (Othonna cheirifolia) Photo courtesy of JC Raulston Arboretum at NC State University.
Barberry ragwort
Othonna cheirifolia
Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) Photo courtesy of Angelyn Whitmeyer, IdentifythatPlant.com.
Mountain laurel
Kalmia latifolia
Oak mistletoe (Phoradendron leucarpum) Photo courtesy of Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge.
Oak mistletoe
Phoradendron leucarpum
Toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Toyon
Heteromeles arbutifolia

Late Fruiting

Most fruits or seeds have been dispersed from the plant (over 95%).

Grasses

Grasses are plants with long, linear leaves growing from the base of the plant and tiny, wind-pollinated flowers. The stems are hollow, and leaves wrap around the stem and are generally attached at nodes or distinct swellings on the stem. Grasses die back at the end of the growing season. Examples include Kentucky bluegrass, big bluestem, and wild rice.

At Budburst we also include in this grouping plants that have a grass-like appearance and exhibit similar phenophases; these include cattails, sedges, and rushes.

Phenology Events

Plants are unique, and the same phase on one grass species might look a little different than the same phase on another grass species. Full Flowering/Pollen looks different for Little bluestem than it does for Parry’s oatgrass.

Correct identification of flowering and fruiting events for this plant group usually requires a magnifying glass or macro lens. Submit Phenology Observations to record plants through each phenophase event for it's growing season.

No Flowering Stalks

No flower stalks have emerged.

First Stalk

First flower stalk is emerging from the stem of the grass and you can see the first flower cluster (spikelet) rising above the leaves of the stem.

Blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) Photo courtesy of Peggy Hanson, Denver Botanic Gardens, Volunteer
Blue grama
Bouteloua gracilis
Western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) Photo courtesy of Jim Pisarowicz, National Park Service
Western wheatgrass
Pascopyrum smithii
Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) Photo courtesy of Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center.
Big Bluestem
Andropogon gerardii
Junegrass (Koelaria cristata) Photo courtesy of Sally and Andy Wasowski, Lady bird Johnson Wildflower Center.
Junegrass
Koelaria cristata

Early Flowering

Only a few flower stalks have emerged (less than 5%).

Middle Flowering

Many flower stalks have emerged.

No Pollen

No pollen is falling.

First Flowering/Pollen

Plant starts releasing the powdery yellow pollen when touched. When open, grass flowers will release yellow pollen dust when touched.

Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) Photo courtesy of Jean Bryan, Budburst.
Big Bluestem
Andropogon gerardii
Blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) Photo courtesy of Jim Pisarowicz, National Park Service.
Blue grama
Bouteloua gracilis
Western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Western wheatgrass
Pascopyrum smithii
Saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) Photo courtesy of Barry Jones, Quivira National Wildlife Refuge.
Saltgrass
Distichlis spicata
Softstem bulrush () Photo courtesy of Barry Jones, Quivira National Wildlife Refuge.
Softstem bulrush
Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani

Early Pollen

Some pollen is falling (less than 5%).

Middle Pollen

Half or more of the grass flowers are open and releasing pollen.

Softstem bulrush () Photo courtesy of Barry Jones, Quivira National Wildlife Refuge.
Softstem bulrush
 
Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) Photo by US Fish and Wildlife Service.
Big bluestem
Andropogon gerardii
Narrow-leaved cattail () Photo courtesy of Barry Jones, Quivira National Wildlife Refuge.
Narrow-leaved cattail
 
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Photo courtesy of Lurie Garden.
Switchgrass
Panicum virgatum

No Ripe Fruit

No ripe fruits or seeds visible.

First Ripe Fruit

First fruits becoming fully ripe or seeds dropping naturally from the plant. For grasses, fruits are fully ripe when the seed is hard when squeezed and is difficult to divide with a fingernail.

Needle and Thread (Hesperostipa comata) Photo by Charles Sauer, Wikimedia Commons.
Needle and Thread
Hesperostipa comata
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Photo by Sally and Andy Wasowski, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
Switchgrass
Panicum virgatum
Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Cheatgrass
Bromus tectorum
Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) Photo courtesy of R.E. Rosiere, Range Types of North America.
Big bluestem
Andropogon gerardii

Early Fruiting

Only a few ripe fruits or seeds are visible (less than 5%).

Middle Fruiting

Half or more of the fruits or seeds are fully ripe.

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Photo courtesy of Jean Bryan, Budburst.
Switchgrass
Panicum virgatum
Western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) Photo courtesy of Sally and Andy Wasowski, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center.
Western wheatgrass
Pascopyrum smithii
Blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) Photo courtesy of Jim Pisarowicz, National Park Service.
Blue grama
Bouteloua gracilis
Wild rice (Zizania palustris) Photo courtesy of Encyclopedia of Life.
Wild rice
Zizania palustris

Late Fruiting

Most fruits or seeds have been dispersed from plant (over 95%).

First Leaf Emerged

First leaf has emerged. The leaf shape should be clearly visible above ground.

Middle Leaves

Most or all of the leaves that developed this season are green and healthy or green at their base. Note that cool-season grasses often die back during dry or hot periods, but are still green at the base of the leaves so are in the "middle" stage.

All Leaves Withered

Most or all of the leaves that developed this season have lost green color or are dried and dead. Note that cool-season grasses often die back during dry or hot periods, but are still green at the base of the leaves so have not yet reached the “all leaves withered” stage.

Blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) Photo courtesy of Paul Alaback.
Blue grama
Bouteloua gracilis
Little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) Photo courtesy of Sarah Newman.
Little bluestem
Schizachyrium scoparium
Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) Photo courtesy of Mike Haddock, Kansas Wildflowers and Grasses.
Big bluestem
Andropogon gerardii
Junegrass (Koelaria cristata) Photo courtesy of Kathryn E. Bolin, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
Junegrass
Koelaria cristata